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1. Bach, Johann Christian. Gioas, rè di Giuda. T’adoro te solo eterno mio Dio

June 7, 2011

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Bach, Johann Christian (1735–1782)
[Gioas, rè di Giuda. T’adoro te solo eterno mio Dio]
Autograph manuscript, circa 1770.
In: Bound collection

Box 861

Johann Christian Bach, youngest son of Johann Sebastian Bach, settled in England in 1762, where he soon achieved success as a composer of Italian opera. Bach’s oratorio Gioas, rè de Giuda, with a libretto after Metastasio, was first performed at the King’s Theatre in 1770. This simplified version of the aria “T’adoro te solo eterno mio Dio,” in Bach’s autograph, was likely adapted by him for an amateur singer, possibly Queen Charlotte, for whom Bach served as music master from 1763 to 1782. The manuscript is bound in a volume of mostly printed keyboard and vocal music; a manuscript annotation, “Cheveley,” appearing in several places in the volume, possibly refers to Louisa Cheveley, who served as a nurse to the young princesses and princes.

2. Bach, Johann Christian. Rinaldo ed Armida. Io ti lascio questo addio

June 7, 2011

Bach, Johann Christian. Rinaldo ed Armida. Io ti lascio questo addio. London: Cahusac, 1790? Cover

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Bach, Johann Christian (1735–1782)
[Rinaldo ed Armida. Io ti lascio questo addio]
The first favorite rondeau sung by Mr. Tenducci at Mess.rs Bach and Abel’s concert London: Cahusac, [1790?]
In: Bound collection

Box 874

In 1765, Johann Christian Bach and Carl Friedrich Abel founded the Bach-Abel Concerts, the first public subscription concert series in London. Carl Friedrich Abel (1723–1787), a German composer and viola da gamba player who settled in London in 1759, had studied with Johann Christian’s father Johann Sebastian Bach in Leipzig. Bach and Abel continued their collaboration through 1781, offering regular concerts of instrumental and vocal works composed and performed by prominent musicians of England and Europe.

This version of an excerpt from Bach’s cantata Rinaldo ed Armida was published in English translation and with the original orchestral accompaniment adapted for a small ensemble of chamber musicians. The title page refers to a performance by Bach, Abel, and two colleagues. Giusto Ferdinando Tenducci (1735–1790), Italian castrato and composer, arrived in London in 1758. He sang Italian opera at the King’s Theatre, appearing in the first performance of Bach’s Adriano in Siria. Johann Christian Fischer (1733–1800), German oboist and composer, was active in London from 1768. Fischer served as a chamber musician to Queen Charlotte, as did Bach and Abel.

This music was later bound in one of several volumes in the Archive titled “Englische Gesänge,” or “English songs.” In this volume, Bach’s music is gathered alongside vernacular English works, such as Holy, holy, holy, the classic English hymn by Reginald Heber. These albums reveal the tremendous breadth and vibrancy of popular musical culture in England in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth century—and the equal enthusiasm for English music, over decades, of members of the Hanover royal family.

3. Table of contents. Manuscript, in the hand of Frederick Nicolay

June 7, 2011

Table of contents. Manuscript, in the hand of Frederick Nicolay, 1788

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Table of contents
Manuscript, in the hand of Frederick Nicolay, 1788
In: Bound collection
Box 837

This volume contains music for harpsichord, including Johann Christian Bach’s Sonatas for harpsichord, violin, and violoncello, W. B 43–48. The table of contents was written by the royal music librarian, with the inscription “This volume belongs to the Queen, 1788.”

4a. Horn, Charles Frederick. Sonatas, keyboard, violin, violoncello, op. 1

June 7, 2011

Horn, Charles Frederick. Sonatas, keyboard, violin, violoncello, op. 1. London: author, 1786. Cover

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Horn, Charles Frederick (1762–1830)
[Sonatas, keyboard, violin, violoncello, op. 1]
Six sonatas for the pianoforte or harpsichord with an accompanyment for a violin & violoncello
London: to be had of the author, [1786]
Part for keyboard
Box 89, folder 418

Charles Frederick Horn, a composer of German birth, had a long association with the royal family, serving as music master to Queen Charlotte, 1789–1793, music instructor for the princesses, 1789–1812, and organist of St. George’s Chapel, Windsor, 1824–1830. His Sonatas, op. 1, were published on his arrival in London in 1786, with subscribers headed by the Princess of Wales and including composer Muzio Clementi and impresario Johann Peter Salomon. The Sonatas were dedicated to Lady Charlotte Leveson- Gower, daughter of Sir Granville Leveson-Gower, Marquess of Stafford, who had previously employed Horn as music master in his household. This copy is signed by Princess Amelia, youngest child of George III and Queen Charlotte.

4b.Horn, Charles Frederick. Trafalgar: an heroic song

June 7, 2011

Horn, Charles Frederick. Trafalgar. London: Goulding, Phipps, D’Almaine & Co., 1805. Cover

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Horn, Charles Frederick (1762–1830)
Trafalgar: an heroic song
London: Goulding, Phipps, D’Almaine & Co., [1805]
In: Bound collection

Box 859

Horn’s song in tribute to Admiral Nelson and his victory at Trafalgar is on a text by Sir William Blizard, surgeon and founder of the London Hospital medical school, and is dedicated to merchant and financier Abraham Goldsmid. The song was performed by Horn’s son, composer and singer Charles Edward Horn (1786–1849). Charles Edward Horn later lived in New York and Boston, where he composed, produced operas, and worked in music publishing during the 1830s and 1840s.

5. “Yankey doodle” and “La belle Gertrude”

June 7, 2011

“Yankey doodle” and “La belle Gertrude.” Manuscript, in an unidentified hand, undated

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“Yankey doodle” and “La belle Gertrude”
Manuscript, in an unidentified hand, undated
In: Music book

Box 183, folder 944

Princess Augusta and others compiled this volume of manuscript music during the late eighteenth century. Contents include “The Princess Royals minuet—1788,” six minuets for the King’s birthday in 1788, and an early version of Yankee doodle.

6a–b. Johnson, James. The Scots musical museum

June 7, 2011

Johnson, James. The Scots musical museum. Volume 1. Edinburgh: Johnson, 1787. Title page

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Johnson, James (circa 1750–1811)
The Scots musical museum.
Volumes 1-4
Edinburgh: Johnson, 1787–1792

Box 582

A major source of Scottish national song is The Scots musical museum, published in six volumes by James Johnson, a prominent music engraver and publisher active in Edinburgh, 1772–1811. More than one third of the 600 songs in Johnson’s collection were contributed by poet and songwriter Robert Burns (1759–1796), including traditional melodies and lyrics, and original poems. Bass accompaniments were composed by Stephen Clarke (1735–1797) and his son William Clarke (1775–1820), both Scottish composers and organists. William Stenhouse (1773–1827), Scottish antiquarian, wrote scholarly notes on each song, published in 1839 as Illustrations of the lyric poetry and music of Scotland.

Volumes 1–4 are present in the Archive, each signed on the title page by Princess Augusta. An example of original poetry by Burns is “Ballad on the American war,” in volume 2, published in 1788. Using a traditional melody, Burns’s poem comments on events of the American Revolution, from the Boston Tea Party of 1773 through the recent succession of William Pitt as Prime Minister of Great Britain in 1783–1784.

Johnson, James. The Scots musical museum. Volume 2. Edinburgh: Johnson, 1788. Page 102

7. Weber, Carl Maria von. Der Freischütz

June 7, 2011

Weber, Carl Maria von. Der Freischütz. Vocal score. Mainz: B. Schott Söhne, 1820s? Title page

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Weber, Carl Maria von (1786–1826)
Der Freischütz
Vocal score, arranged by Carl Zulehner
Mainz: B. Schott Söhne, [1820s?]

Box 144, folder 765

Operas arranged for voice and keyboard provided amateur musicians with a means of studying, playing, and hearing opera in private surroundings. Many examples of vocal scores for contemporary operas are present in the Archive. One of the most successful operas of this period, Carl Maria von Weber’s Der Freischütz was first performed in Berlin in 1821, and was soon presented on major opera stages throughout Europe and beyond. This early vocal score, with a title page illustration of a scene from the opera, was owned by Princess Augusta, whose signature appears on the cover.

8. After the battle

June 7, 2011

“After the battle.” Manuscript, in an unidentified hand, undated. Page 1

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“After the battle”
Manuscript, in an unidentified hand, undated
In: Music book
Box 819

This volume of manuscript songs and dances, inscribed by Princess Augusta in 1818, shows the Princess and others at work on their music.

9. Oh God the strength of all the just

June 7, 2011

“Oh God the strength of all the just.” In: Music book, circa 1830

“Oh God the strength of all the just”
Manuscript, in an unidentified hand, undated
In: Music book, circa 1830
Box 822

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These pages, in a music book kept circa 1830 by Princess Augusta, show the volume’s use at two distinct moments.

10. Jones, Edward. A selection of the most admired and original German waltzes

June 7, 2011

Jones, Edward (1752–1824)
A selection of the most admired and original German waltzes
London: printed for the editor, 1806

Box 583

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This collection of unattributed German waltzes was compiled by Edward Jones, Welsh harper, composer, and collector of national music. Jones composed and performed harp music for the Bach-Abel Concerts and taught harp playing to aristocratic amateurs. He is best known for three compilations of Welsh melodies: Musical and poetical relicks of the Welsh bards (1784), The bardic museum (1802), and Hên ganiadau cymru (1820); several of his published collections are listed at the bottom of the title page. The title page asserts his association with the royal family, as “Bard to the Prince of Wales,” and with a dedication to ten-year-old Charlotte, Princess of Wales, later Princess of Great Britain. As the only child of George IV, Charlotte was likely to become queen, but died tragically after giving birth to a stillborn child in 1817.

Jones, Edward. A selection of the most admired and original German waltzes. London: editor, 1806. Title page

An engraved illustration by Thomas Rowlandson (1756–1827) has been hand-colored with watercolors, possibly by one of the princesses. The caption refers to a waltz in Goethe’s Werther, further identified on page 3 as “the Waltz which Werter and Charlotte are said to have first danced together.”

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11. Strauss, Johann. Wiener-Tagsbelustigung: Pot-Pourri für das Pianoforte

June 7, 2011

Strauss, Johann. Wiener-Tagsbelustigung: Pot-Pourri für das Pianoforte. Vienna: Tobias Haslinger, 1830. Cover

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Strauss, Johann (1804–1849)
Wiener-Tagsbelustigung: Pot-Pourri für das Pianoforte
Vienna: Tobias Haslinger, 1830
Box 137, folder 721

The Archive contains music for social dance by a range of eighteenth- and nineteenth-century composers. Johann Strauss the elder (1804–1849) is particularly well-represented, with two bound collections of his waltzes arranged for keyboard. Strauss also published medleys of popular tunes known as pot-pourris. His Wiener-Tagsbelustigung presents melodies from several of his works of 1828–1829 (Hirten-Galop, Champagner Waltz, Hietzinger-Reunion Waltz, Wilhelm Tell-Galop, and Lager-Walzer), arranged in a medley for solo piano.

Publisher Tobias Haslinger issued Strauss’s music in formats designed to increase sales to amateur musicians. Here the title page is printed in two colors, to which additional watercoloring has been supplied by hand.

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12. Frontispiece. Signed by Princess Augusta

June 7, 2011

Signed by Princess Augusta, Queens House, London, 1789

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Frontispiece
Signed by Princess Augusta, Queens House, London, 1789
In: Music book
Box 817

This type of music notebook could be purchased from music publishers at their premises, such as the London Cheapside and Hay Market locations listed here for Longman & Broderip. The printed frontispiece has been inscribed by its owner, “Augusta Sophia, Queens House, London, 1789.” The volume itself contains keyboard music and songs in several hands, including those of Charles Frederick Horn, Princess Augusta, Princess Elizabeth, and Lady Mary Howe.

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13. Frontispiece. Signed by Princess Amelia and initialed by Princess Augusta

June 7, 2011

Frontispiece. Signed by Princess Amelia and initialed by Princess Augusta, 1810 November 21

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Frontispiece
Signed by Princess Amelia and initialed by Princess Augusta, 1810 November 21
In: Music book
Box 816

The Archive records both an evanescent English popular culture and the layers of meaning which the music held for its owners. The printed frontispiece to this manuscript music book was inscribed both by Princess Amelia and by her older sister Augusta, who has written, “Given me by my two dear brothers the Prince of Wales and the Duke of Cambridge after my beloved Amelia’s death.” Princess Amelia died on November 2, 1810, at the age of twenty-seven.

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14. Journal des dames

June 7, 2011

Jounal des Dames. London: C. Arnoux. Fashion plate, in Modes et dessins de broderie, Ire annee, 1817

Journal des dames
London: C. Arnoux
Five bound volumes of issues dated 1817–1819
Boxes 803–804

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Modes et dessins de broderie, Ire annee
Modes et dessins de broderie, 2nd annee
Litterature, Ire annee
Litterature, 2nd annee
Musique instrumentale

Journal des dames. London: C. Arnoux. Advertisement, in: Modes et dessins de broderie, Ire annee, 1817

While much of the Archive relates to the musical activity of royal amateurs, a few items concern related literary and artistic pursuits of the princesses.  Journal des dames, a serial published in London, brought current fashions in French literature, music, and dress to English subscribers. Five volumes of bound issues for 1817–[1819] are found in the Archive, containing articles for language study, printed in French and Italian on facing pages; music and dance instructions for French social dance; and fashion plates and embroidery patterns. 

Journal des dames. London: C. Arnoux. Quadrille with dance instructions, in Musique instrumentale, circa 1817-1819

Two volumes of fashion plates show women’s dresses and embroidery worn at court, balls, masked balls, and weddings, as well as women’s hats and coats, and a few examples of children’s clothing. The engraved plates have been hand colored with watercolors, possibly by the princesses.

Literary articles encompass fiction, travel, history, and political topics. Some relate to recent events, such as this account of the execution of Thomas de Mahy, marquis de Favras, by French revolutionists. Regarded as a martyr for the royalist cause, Favras was executed in 1790 for his involvement in plans conceived by the Comte de Provence to rescue Louis XVI and the royal family from imprisonment.

Journal des dames. London: C. Arnoux. “Mort du Marquis de Favras,” page 1, in Litterature, 2nd annee, 1818 August 8

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15. A song in G

June 7, 2011

“A song in G.” Manuscript, in an unidentified hand, undated

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“A song in G.”
Manuscript, in an unidentified hand, undated
In: Music book
Box 818

Many volumes in the Archive show evidence of the collection as a working household library, one used by many family members. Princess Augusta signed this volume, which also contains works of Charles Frederick Horn, as well as music copied by other members of the royal family.

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16. Corri, Montague. Autograph letter, signed, to Princess Augusta

June 7, 2011

Corri, Montague. Autograph letter, signed, to Princess Augusta, June 13, no year

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Corri, Montague (1784–1849)
Autograph letter, signed, to Princess Augusta
London, June 13, no year

Box 30, folder 139

Much of the printed music in the Archive bears evidence of royal patronage in the form of dedications and subscription lists. This letter from Montague Corri to Princess Augusta requests her support for a work to be published by subscription, an effort by Corri to increase his list of subscribers and subsequent financial success.

Corri was born in Edinburgh in 1784, son of composer and publisher Domenico Corri (1746–1825), who had left Rome for Edinburgh in 1771 to conduct concerts of the Musical Society of Edinburgh, and later started a music publishing business in London. Montague Corri took over his father’s publishing business in 1804; after the hand injury referred to in his letter to Princess Augusta (“… as through accidentally breaking one of my fingers, I am obliged to relinquish part of the profession …”), he gave up instrumental performance and worked as a composer, publisher, and theater manager.

Corri composed songs and piano works, and published a Treatise on the art of singing (1830) and A new and improved pianoforte tutor (1835). Though the work to which the letter refers is unidentified, two publications by Corri are present in the Archive: A complete course of instructions on the most efficient system of arranging music in score for voices, orchestras, military bands, brass bands &c and National melodies of Ireland, Scotland, and Wales.

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17. Shield, William. A new edition (being the second) of An introduction to harmony

June 7, 2011

Shield, William. A new edition (being the second) of An introduction to harmony. London: author, 1815. Pages 84-85

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Shield, William (1748–1829)
A new edition (being the second) of An introduction to harmony
London: printed for the author, [1815]
Box 718

Patronage by members of the royal family extended to theoretical works on music, several of which are present in the Archive. This example by William Shield identifies the author as “musician in ordinary to His Majesty” and has a preface dedicating the work to George IV as Prince Regent. Shield, an English composer, violist, and collector of national songs, became active in London theaters during the 1770s as an orchestra musician and composer of comic operas. As house composer for Covent Garden, 1784–1797, he created popular theatrical productions that incorporated English, Scottish, and Irish folksongs. Shield’s interest in national music led to a collaboration with antiquarian Joseph Ritson on two song collections: Select collection of English songs (1783) and Scotish songs (1794). A version of a Scottish melody used by Shield in his opera Rosina (1782) has been identified as a source for the tune of Robert Burns’s Auld lang syne.

After retiring from Covent Garden in 1797, Shield published An introduction to harmony (1800; second edition 1815) and The rudiments of thoroughbass (1815). This section from the third part of An introduction to harmony, titled “On accompaniment,” discusses composition of music appropriate for singing in English.

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18. Welsh, Thomas. God save King William!

June 7, 2011

Welsh, Thomas. God Save King William! London: T. Welsh, 1830. Cover

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Welsh, Thomas (1780–1848)
God save King William!
London: T. Welsh, [1830]
In: Bound collection

Box 864

Music provided a forum for public discussion and memory in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth century. This volume of “Englische Gesänge” contains works marking the death of German composer Carl Maria von Weber, a Prayer of the British nation for the recovery of His Most Gracious Majesty King George the Fourth, and, shown here, God save King William!

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19. Table of contents

June 7, 2011

Table of contents. Manuscript, in an unidentified hand, undated

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Table of contents
Manuscript, in an unidentified hand, undated
In: Music book
Box 830

This volume of “Englische Gesänge” contains a partial table of contents, most likely a listing of favorites. Works listed were not necessarily those of most interest today: the list makes no mention of an autograph setting by Johann Christian Bach of the poet Alexander Pope’s “The dying Christian to his soul.”

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20. God save the king: the king’s anthem for the jubilee

June 7, 2011

God save the king: the king’s anthem for the jubilee, October 25th, 1809. No place: no publisher

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God save the king: the king’s anthem for the jubilee, October 25th, 1809
No place: no publisher, [1809]
In: Bound collection

Box 868

This anonymous setting, dating from the fiftieth anniversary of the reign of George III, is one of many versions of God save the king found in the Archive.

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21. Catalogue of music for H. R. H. the Duke of Cumberland’s private band

June 7, 2011

Catalogue of music for H. R. H. the Duke of Cumberland’s private band. Manuscript, in an unidentified hand, circa 1830. Cover

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“Catalogue of music for H. R. H. the Duke of Cumberland’s private band”
Manuscript, in an unidentified hand, circa 1830
Box 876

Within the larger Archive of predominantly vocal, keyboard, and chamber genres, music for the Duke of Cumberland’s band consists of hundreds of works for band and orchestra ensembles. Each work is represented by a complete set of parts for performers, printed or copyist’s manuscript, in an original folder with annotations and shelf marks.

The eighth child and fifth son of George III, Ernest Augustus (1771–1851) held the title Duke of Cumberland from 1799 and became King of Hanover in 1837. In his youth, Ernest Augustus attended the University of Göttingen, received military training in Hanover, and served in the Hanoverian army during the period of the French Revolution and the Napoleonic wars. After his return to England, Ernest Augustus remained active in politics and the military, and was often seen as a controversial figure, drawing allegations of both political misconduct and personal scandal.

The music of his private band reveals Ernest Augustus’s musical interests, and provides evidence of how larger works were circulated, adapted, and heard by audiences in private venues. The band’s music is typically for an ensemble of clarinets, flute, bassoons, serpent, horns, trumpets, trombone, and timpani. Some works include additional woodwind, brass, or percussion, and some are for orchestra with strings, or for chamber ensembles. Accompanying the music is this bound catalog, listing “Favourite pieces for playing” and “Military music,” each identified by title, composer, arranger, and shelf mark. Works include music for military band, arrangements of earlier music by Purcell, Handel, and Boyce, and arrangements of orchestra music by contemporary composers such as Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven.

Though most music is undated, watermarks and conjectured dates span circa 1790–1812; a small amount of dated music extends this span from 1765 to 1834. The catalog volume itself is undated but contains paper watermarked 1812–1814.

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22a–b. Collier, John. A grand sonata dedicated to the Queen by Ignace Pleyel

June 7, 2011

Collier, John. A grand sonata dedicated to the Queen by Ignace Pleyel. London: W. Milhouse, undated. Part for 2nd bassoon. Cover

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Collier, John
A grand sonata dedicated to the Queen by Ignace Pleyel
London: W. Milhouse, undated
Arranged for band
Parts for 5 clarinets, 2 bassoons, serpent, 2 horns, trombone

With original folder
Box 197, folders 1008–1009

Among lesser-known composers represented in music for the Duke of Cumberland’s band, some are identified as musicians employed in the band or in other private or military ensembles. One example is John Collier, who is represented in the Archive by twelve compositions and arrangements. Collier is identified as “Master of H. R. H. the Duke of Cumberland’s band” on the title pages of several of his published works, such as this arrangement for band of a work by Ignaz Pleyel.

Most music for the Duke of Cumberland’s band is accompanied by original folders used for storage. Folders are typically headed “H. R. H. E. D. C.” (His Royal Highness, Ernest Duke of Cumberland) and by a shelf mark. Some, such as the folder for Collier’s Pleyel arrangement, include an incipit of the work.

Collier, John. A grand sonata dedicated to the Queen by Ignace Pleyel. London: W. Milhouse, undated. Original folder

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23a–b. Haydn, Joseph. Symphony, H. I, 99, E-flat major

June 7, 2011

Haydn, Joseph. Symphony, H. I, 99, E-flat major. London: Salomon, circa 1802. Part for first violin. Cover

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Haydn, Joseph, (1732–1809)
[Symphony, H. I, 99, E-flat major]
No. [10], Haydn’s grand symphonies, composed for Mr. Salomon’s concert, a full band
London: printed for the proprietor Mr. Salomon, [circa 1802]
Parts for 2 violins, viola, bass and violoncello (2 parts), 2 flutes, 2 oboes, 2 clarinets, 2 bassoons (1 part), serpent, 2 horns, 2 trumpets, timpani

Box 73, folder 348

Haydn, Joseph, (1732–1809)
[Symphony, H. I, 99, E-flat major]
No. [10, 11, 12] of Haydn’s grand symphonies, composed for Mr. Salomon’s concerts, and arranged for five instruments … with an accompaniment for the piano forte
London: printed for the proprietor Mr. Salomon, [circa 1800]
Parts for flute, 2 violins, viola, violoncello, piano

Box 72, folder 342

Haydn’s extensive and influential output of orchestral music culminated in his symphonies nos. 93–104, known as the “London Symphonies,” composed for London impresario Johann Peter Salomon. Originally from Germany, Salomon was a violinist, impresario, and composer who played a leading role in the musical life of England from 1781 until his death in 1815. Salomon’s greatest success was in bringing Haydn to London in 1791–1792 and 1794–1795. Already famous throughout Europe, Haydn further enhanced his international reputation in London, where he composed and published new music, taught, appeared in public concerts, and performed privately for the royal family.

The Archive contains sets of printed parts, in first or early editions, for several of the London Symphonies.  Symphony no. 99 was composed in 1793 and performed in London on February 10, 1794. The cover of the first violin part for this early edition is annotated in manuscript with a numbering designation used by the printer. By “full band” the printer indicated a complete set of parts for Haydn’s original instrumentation: 2 flutes, 2 oboes, 2 clarinets, 2 bassoons, 2 horns, 2 trumpets, timpani, and strings.

The London Symphonies were a brilliant success with musicians and audiences. This version for six instruments, accessible to a small group of chamber musicians or amateurs, was arranged and published by Johann Peter Salomon, whose signature appears at the bottom of the title page.

Haydn, Joseph. Symphony, H. I, 99, E-flat major, arr. London: Salomon, circa 1800. Part for first violin. Cover

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24a–c. Haydn, Joseph. Symphony, H. I, 100, G major

June 7, 2011

Haydn, Joseph. Symphony, H. I, 100, G major. No place: André, 1796. Part for bassoon. Page 1

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Haydn, Joseph, (1732–1809)
[Symphony, H. I, 100, G major]
No place: André, [1796]
Part for bassoon

In: [Symphonies]. Set of parts
Box 77, folder 363

Haydn, Joseph, (1732–1809)
Symphony, H. I, 100, G major
Manuscript, in an unidentified hand, on paper watermarked 1803
Parts for serpent and trombone
In: [Symphonies]. Set of parts
Box 78, folder 366

This bassoon part for Haydn’s Symphony no. 100 is bound in a volume of bassoon parts for several orchestral works, for use by a musician in performance. Similar volumes are present for second violin, viola, bass, basso obbligato, flute, oboes, and horns, with some single parts for other instruments; volumes for first violin and clarinets are missing. Each of these volumes contains parts for Haydn’s symphonies nos. 97 and 100, as well as parts for symphonies of Ignaz Pleyel and works of other composers.

Among additional parts accompanying the volumes are manuscript parts for serpent and trombone, two bass instruments that were not present in Haydn’s original instrumentation. The serpent, a wind instrument named for its curved shape, predated modern valved brass instruments and was commonly used by eighteenth-century military bands. These added parts for serpent and trombone show both similarities and significant differences in comparison to each other and to the printed bassoon part, itself showing revisions in manuscript.

Haydn, Joseph. Symphony, H. I, 100, G major. Manuscript, in an unidentified hand. Part for serpent. Page 1

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Haydn, Joseph. Symphony, H. I, 100, G major. Manuscript, in an unidentified hand. Part for trombone. Page 1

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25a–c. Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus. Opera overtures

June 7, 2011

Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus. Le nozze di Figaro. Ouverture, arr. Manuscript, in an unidentified hand, circa 1807–1812. Part for first clarinet. Page 1

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Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus (1756–1791)
[Le nozze di Figaro. Ouverture]
Arranged for band by John Collier
Manuscript, in an unidentified hand, on paper watermarked 1807–1812
Parts for 2 flutes, 2 oboes, 6 clarinets, 3 bassoons, serpent, 3 horns, 3 trumpets, trombone, timpani
Box 248, folder 1308

Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus (1756–1791)
[Don Giovanni. Ouverture]

Arranged for band
Manuscript, in an unidentified hand, on paper watermarked 1803
Parts for 2 clarinets (1 part), serpent, trombone
Box 248, folder 1304

Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus (1756–1791)
[Die Zauberflöte. Ouverture]

Arranged for band by Schäfer
Manuscript, in an unidentified hand, on paper watermarked 1801–1804
Parts for 2 flutes, 2 oboes or clarinets, 2 clarinets, 2 bassoons, serpent, 2 horns, 2 trumpets (1 part)
Box 251, folder 1323

 Music used by the Duke of Cumberland’s band includes excerpts from recent operas arranged for band ensembles of wind and percussion instruments. Mozart’s Le nozze di Figaro (1786), Don Giovanni (1787), and Die Zauberflöte (1791) were composed and first performed during the last decade of Mozart’s life, and were first published in vocal score in the 1790s. These examples of clarinet parts from manuscript arrangements made circa 1801–1812 are evidence of the continuing popularity of these operas with musicians and audiences.

Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus. Don Giovanni. Ouverture, arr. Manuscript, in an unidentified hand, circa 1803. Part for clarinets. Page 1

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Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus. Die Zauberflöte. Ouverture, arr. Manuscript, in an unidentified hand, circa 1801–1804. Part for first clarinet. Page 1

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26. Beethoven, Ludwig van. Symphony, no. 1, op. 21, C major

June 7, 2011

Beethoven, Ludwig van. Symphony, no. 1, op. 21, C major. Manuscript in an unidentified hand, circa 1804. Part for first violin. Page 1

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Beethoven, Ludwig van (1770–1827)
[Symphony, no. 1, op. 21, C major]
Manuscript, in an unidentified hand, on paper watermarked 1804
Parts for 2 violins, viola, violoncello and bass (2 copies), flute, 2 oboes, 2 clarinets, 2 bassoons, serpent, 2 horns, 2 trumpets, trombones, timpani
Box 188, folder 964

One of the most significant orchestral works found among pieces performed by the Duke of Cumberland’s band is this copyist’s manuscript of Beethoven’s Symphony no. 1. Composed in 1799–1800, Symphony no. 1 was first performed in 1800, and first published, as orchestra parts, in Leipzig in 1801.

Though this manuscript by an unidentified copyist is undated, the paper is watermarked 1804, likely indicating early performances of the work by the Duke’s band. Original instrumentation (2 flutes, 2 oboes, 2 clarinets, 2 bassoons, 2 horns, 2 trumpets, timpani, and strings) has been altered by additional parts for serpent and trombone.

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